Jesse, Amy and Tim gather around the round table to chat—is AWS a threat to OSS (Open Source Software)? For starters, what exactly is OSS? Our hosts give us the details on what it is, how it works, and what it can provide, and how it differs from an Open Source Company.
Will AWS go after OSS? Amy pipes in with her expertise from her background working in the government. As she demonstrates, these companies love going after the government much more than they do these small companies. With all the possible angles OSS makes for a complex space that needs a lot more meat on the podcast bones to fully flesh out. But where to start? On this week's “Friday From the Field!”
Corey: This episode is sponsored in part by LaunchDarkly
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and tell them Corey sent you, and watch for the wince.
Jesse: Hello, and welcome to AWS Morning Brief: Fridays From the Field. I’m Jesse DeRose.
Amy: I’m Amy Negrette.
Tim: And I’m Tim Banks.
Jesse: This is the podcast within a podcast where we talk about all the ways we’ve seen AWS used and abused in the wild. Today, we’re going to be talking about AWS, an open-source software. Now, that’s kind of a broad topic, but there have been some specific, recent events I’ll say, over the last year maybe or maybe even less, related to AWS and open-source software that really got us talking, and I wanted to have a deeper conversation with both of you on this topic.
Tim: Well, you should probably start by going over some of the things that you’re mentioning, when you say ‘some of these things,’ what are those things, Jesse?
Jesse: Yeah. So, I think the best place to start is what constitutes open-source software. And specifically, I think, not just what constitutes open-source software, but how does that differ from an open-source company?
Tim: So, open-source software can be anything: Linux kernel, bash, anything like that, any Python functioning module. If you make a piece of software, whatever it is, and you license it with one of the various open-source licenses, or your own open-source license or whatever, it’s something that the community kind of owns. So, when they get big, they have maintainers, everything like that, but at its essence, it’s a piece of software that you can freely download and use, and then you’re free to modify it as you need, and then it’s up to the specifics of the license to whether you’re required to send those modifications back, to include them, or to whatever. But the essence is that it’s a piece of software that’s free for me to use and free for me to modify under it’s license.
Jesse: And one of the other things I want to add to that is, correct me if I’m wrong here, but isn’t a lot of open-source software is very community-owned, so there’s a lot of focus on folks from the community that is using this software giving back not because they need to under the licensing, necessarily, but because they want to continue using this and making it better over time.
Amy: I think one of the issues is that becomes a very opinionated kind of statement where there are a lot of people in the open-source community who feel that if you’re going to use something and make changes to better suit what your needs are, that you should be able to submit those changes back to the community, or back to whoever owns the base of the software. But that said, it’s like the community edition of MySQL before Microsoft bought it, where the assumption was that there’s essentially a candidate of it that anyone can use without the expectation of submitting it back.
Jesse: So, that’s a broad definition of open-source software, but how does open-source software, broadly speaking, differ from an open-source company? I’m thinking specifically there is the open-source software of Elasticsearch, for example, or I should say, previously the open-source software of Elasticsearch that was owned by the open-source company, Elastic. So, what does that relationship look like? How does an open-source company like that differ from the open-source software itself?
Tim: So, there are typically a couple of ways. Usually, a company that is the owner of an open-source product still has some kind of retention of the IP in their various licenses that they can do that with, but essentially—and this is in the words of one of the founders of Elastic—that they’re benevolent dictators over the software. And so they allow folks to contribute, but they don’t have to. And most of those open-source software companies will have a commercial version of that software that has other features that are not available, packages with support or some of the things like that, some kind of value-added thing that you’re going to wind up paying for. The best way to describe—like you said—there’s the company Elastic and then the product Elasticsearch.
I relate back to before: there was Red Hat Linux, which was open-source, and then the company Red Hat. And I remember when they went public and everyone was shocked that a company can make profit off of something they gave away for free. But while the core of the software itself was free, the support was not free, nor was the add-on features that enterprises wanted. And so that tends to be kind of what the business model is, is that you create the software, it’s open-source for a while to get a big user base, and then when it gets adopted by enterprises or people that really would pay for support or for other features, that’s when the license tends to change, or there’s a fork between the open-source version and then the commercial version.
Jesse: And it definitely sounds like there can be benefits to an open-source company essentially charging for not just the open-source software, but these extra benefits like supports and additional features because I know I’ve traced multiple code bugs back to a piece of open-source software that there’s a PR or an issue that has been sitting open for months, if not longer because the community just doesn’t have the time to look into the issue, doesn’t have the time to work on the issue, they are managing it on their own, separate as a side job, separate from their day-to-day work. Whereas if that is a bug that I’m tracing back to a feature in an open-source piece of software, or I should say software that I am paying for through an open-source company, I have a much clearer support path to a resolution to resolving that issue.
Tim: And I think what the end up doing is then you see it more like a traditional core software model, like, you know, a la Oracle, or something like that where you pay for the software essentially, but it comes packaged with these things that you get because of it, and then there’s a support contract on top of it, and then there’s hosting or cloud, whatever it is, on top of that, now, but you would still end up paying for the software and then support as part of the same deal. But as you know, these are for-profit companies. People get paid for them; they are publicly traded; they sell this software; they sell this product, whether it’s the services or the hosting, for profit. That is not open-source software. So, if company X that makes software X, goes under, they are acting like the software would then go under as if the software doesn’t belong to the community.
So, a business that goes after a business is always going to be fair play; I believe they call it capitalism. But when you talk about going after open-source software, you’re looking at what Microsoft was doing in the ’90s and early 2000s, with Linux and other open-source challenges to the Windows and the other paid commercial enterprise software market. When folks started using Linux and servers because it was free, customizable, and they could do pretty much everything they wanted to or version of it that they were using commercial Unices for, or even replacing Windows for, you didn’t really see the commercial Unices going after it because that very specialized use cases; the user had specialized hardware. What folks were doing, they’re buying Wintel machines and putting Linux on them, they were getting them without Windows licenses, or trial licenses, throwing Linux on it. And Microsoft really went after open-source; they really went after open-source.
They were calling it insecure, they were calling it flash in the pan, saying it would never happen. They ran a good marketing campaign for a long time against open-source software so that people would not use it and would instead use their closed-source software. That is going after open-source, not going after quote-unquote, “Open-source companies.”
Jesse: Yeah, I think that’s ultimately what I want to dive into next, which is, there’s been a lot of buzz about AWS going after open-source, being a risk to open-source software, specifically, with the release of AWS Managed Services for software like Elasticsearch, for example, Kubernetes, Prometheus vs. Other open-source packages that you can now run as a managed service in AWS. There’s a lot of concern that AWS is basically a risk to all of these pieces of open-source software, but that doesn’t necessarily seem to be the case, based on what we’re talking about. One of the things that I want to dive into really specifically here is this licensing idea. Is it important to end-users? How would they know about what license they’re using, or if the license changes?
Tim: I’ll let Amy dig in on it because she’s probably the expert of three of them, but I will say one case in point, I remember where licensing did become very important was Java. JDK licenses, when Oracle started cornering the market on enclosing all the licenses, you had to use different types of Javas. So, you had to get, like, open JDK; you couldn’t use Sun, Oracle Java, or whatever it was. And so that became a heavy lift of replacing packages and making sure all that stuff was in compliance, and while tracking packages, replacing them, doing all the necessary things because if you’re running Java, you’re probably running it in production. Why you would, I don’t know, but there are those things that you would have to do in order to be able to just replace a package. The impact of the license, even if it doesn’t cost a dime for usage, it still matters, and in real dollars and real engineering time.
Amy: Even free licensing will cost you money if you do it wrong. The reason why I love talking about licensing is because I used to work for the government—
Amy: —and if you think a large company like Amazon or Microsoft loves doing anything to rattle the cage of smaller businesses, it’s not nearly as much as they love doing it to the government. So, any company that has a government-specific license, and the government is not using it, they will get sued and fined for a bunch of money, which sounds like a conflict between a super-large company and the government and who the hell cares about that, but this also translates the way they handle licensing for end-users and for smaller companies. So, for the most part for the end-user, you’re going to look at what is generally sent to you to use any piece of licensing, the EULA, the End-User License Agreement, and you’re just going to say, “Yeah, fine, this thing is 20 pages long; I’m not going to read this, it’s fine.” And for most end-users, that is actually, you’re good to go because they’re not going to be coming after small, single-person users. What these licenses do is restrict the way larger organizations—be it the government or mid to larger companies—actually use their software, so that—this is a little dating—someone does not buy a single disk that does not report home, and then install that one disk on 20 computers, which is a thing that everyone has seen done if they’ve been in the industry long enough.
Amy: Yeah. And it means things like licensing inventory is important, to the single you’re using this license at home and you install Adobe on three computers, you would think it’s not… would not hurt their value very much, but they also make it so that you can’t even do that anymore. So, in purchased software, it makes a big deal for end-users; if it’s just something free like being able to use some community SQL workbench just to mess around with stuff at home or on personal projects, you’re usually going to be okay.
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and tell them I sent you just so you can see them facepalm, yet again.
Jesse: Yeah, this is a really big issue. There’s so much complexity in this space because Tim, like you said, there’s some amount of capitalism here of AWS competing with open-source companies; there’s business opportunities to change licensing, which can be a good thing for a company or it could be a terrible thing for a company’s user base. There’s lots of complexity to this issue. And I mean, in the amount of time that we’ve been talking, we’ve only really scratched the surface. I think there’s so much more to this space to talk about.
Tim: There really is, and there’s a lot of history that we really need to cover to really paint an accurate picture. I think back when web hosting first became a thing, and everyone was running LAMP stacks and nobody was saying, “Oh, no, using cPanel is going to kill Apache.” That wasn’t a thing because, yeah, it was a for-profit company that was using open-source software to make money and yet Apache still lived, and [unintelligible 00:15:00] still lived; MySQL still made it; PHP was still around. So, to say that utilizing open-source software to provide a service, to provide a paid service, is going to kill the open-source softwares, at best it’s misrepresentation and omits a lot of things. So, yeah, there’s a lot of stuff we can dig into, a lot of things we can cover.
And the topic is broad, and so this is why it’s important for us to talk about it, I think, in the context of AWS and the AWS, kind of, ecosystem is that when you see companies with big crocodile tears, saying, “Oh, yeah, AWS is trying to kill open-source,” it’s like, “No, they’re not trying to kill open-source.” They may be trying to go after your company, but they aren’t the same.
Jesse: And it feels to me like that is part of the way that the business world works. And I’m not saying that it’s a great part of the way the business world works, but how can you differentiate your company in such a way that you still retain your user base if AWS releases a competing product? I’m not thrilled with the fact that AWS is releasing all these products that are competing with open-source companies, but I’m also not going to say that it’s not beneficial, in some ways, for AWS customers. So, I see both sides of the coin here and I don’t have a clear idea of what the best path forward is.
Amy: As much as I hate the market demands it type of argument, a lot of the libraries, and open-source software, and all of these other things that AWS has successfully gone after, they’ve gone after ones that weren’t entirely easy to use in the first place. Things like Kubernetes, and Prometheus, and MongoDB, and Elastic. These are not simple solutions to begin with, so if they didn’t do it, there are a lot of other management companies that will help you deal with these very specific products. The only difference is, one of them is AWS.
Jesse: [laugh]. One of them is a multibillion-dollar company.
Amy: Oh, they’ve all got money, man.
Amy: I mean, let’s be real. At our pay grade, the difference between a multimillion-dollar and a billion-dollar company, I don’t think affects you at your level at all.
Amy: I’m not seeing any of that difference. I am not. [laugh].
Tim: Yeah, I definitely think if you all want us to dig into more of this—and we could do a lot more—let us know. If there are things you think we’re wrong on, or things that you think we need to dig deeper on, yeah, we’d love to do that. Because this is a complex and nuanced topic that does have a lot of information that should be discussed so that folks can have a clear view of what the picture looks like.
Jesse: Well, that’ll do it for us this week, folks. If you’ve got questions you’d like us to answer please go to lastweekinaws.com/QA
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